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Darwinian Hedonism and the Epidemic of Unhealthy Behavior / David M. Williams; Michael RusePsychological hedonism - the idea that people tend to act in ways that maximize pleasure and minimize displeasure - has a decidedly poor reputation among academics who study human behavior. Opinions range from outright rejection to those who believe it to be intuitively obvious, but untestable and therefore unhelpful. In this book, the author introduces an empirically testable and useful theory of psychological hedonism based on contemporary theory and research in the emerging field of affective neuroscience. He goes on to argue that people are genetically endowed with a tendency towards psychological hedonism as a function of Darwinian processes. This view of psychological hedonism in light of its Darwinian origins - thereinafter referred to as Darwinian hedonism - is essential to address the growing global epidemic of unhealthy behavior, such as poor diet, physical inactivity, and substance use.
Epidemiological Studies: a Practical Guide / Alan J. Silman; Gary J. Macfarlane; Tatiana MacfarlaneTo successfully conduct an epidemiological study, academic subject knowledge must be combined with careful consideration of the practical elements involved. From an academic perspective, insights into the basis of epidemiology, the concepts behind how we study diseases, and the challenges and limitations of the results that emerge are prioritised. However, the success of the academic analysis depends on how, when, and where the data used is collected. Epidemiological Studies: A Practical Guide focuses on the practical challenges of epidemiological data collection. Essential topics, such as how to choose the population to study, how to maximise participation and retention, and how to frame questions so that subjects provide the information required, are the core of the material presented. The book explains the skills needed to conduct a study where data is collected and presented accurately, and in appropriate formats. In addition to presenting a step-by-step guide to epidemiological investigations, the chapters in the book are accompanied by examples of how to phrase the letters and forms needed for each stage of conducting a study. Focusing on measurement, study designs, statistics, methodological issues, and key skills, the book provides a valuable background to epidemiological study. With detailed tables and figures, a clear chapter outline, and a straightforward index, the information presented is easily accessible and can quickly be applied to the reader's own work. Extensively revised, this new edition includes updates on case-crossover, Mendelian randomisation, and case-cohort. New chapters have been added to reflect the areas a student is now likely to encounter in an introductory epidemiological course, such as evidence synthesis, use of routine data, association or causation, feasibility, and pilot studies. Epidemiological Studies: A Practical Guide is ideal for students in epidemiology, public health, health research, and health services research. It is also highly relevant to post-graduate research students, and early stage clinical and non-clinical researchers.
Evidence-Based Diagnosis / Thomas B. Newman; Michael A. KohnMedicine is becoming increasingly reliant on diagnostic, prognostic and screening tests for the successful treatment of patients. With new tests being developed all the time, a more informed understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of these tests is crucial. Providing readers with the tools needed to evaluate and interpret these tests, numerous real-world examples demonstrate the practical application and relevance of the material. The mathematics involved are rigorously explained using simple and informative language. Topics covered include the diagnostic process, reliability and accuracy of tests, and quantifying treatment benefits using randomized trials, amongst others. Engaging illustrations act as visual representations of the concepts discussed in the book, complementing the textual explanation. Based on decades of experience teaching in a clinical research training program, this fully updated second edition is an essential guide for anyone looking to select, develop or market medical tests.
Jekel's Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health / Joann G. Elmore; Dorothea Wild; David L. Katz; Heidi D. NelsonWritten by renowned epidemiologists and public health experts, this unique text provides complete, concise coverage of epidemiology, biostatistics, preventive medicine, and public health in clear, easy-to-understand terms. One convenient volume delivers must-know content in four complex areas-information that's sure to be covered in today's classrooms and on USMLE exams-presented with a clinical focus and real-life medical examples throughout. Depth of coverage, concise writing style, outstanding online review questions, a clinical emphasis . these features and more make Jekel's your go-to resource for learning, study, and review. Focuses on clinical problem solving and decision making using epidemiologic concepts and examples. Contains more clinical cases throughout, including global examples. Offers expanded coverage of the impact of big data and precision medicine, as well as an updated and reorganized biostatistics section. Features quick-reference boxes that showcase key concepts and calculations, and dynamic illustrations that facilitate learning using a highly visual approach. Provides almost 300 multiple-choice chapter review questions and answers in print, with additional questions and more online at Student Consult. Aligns content to board blueprints for the USMLE as well as the three specialties certified by the American Board of Preventive Medicine: Occupational Medicine, and Public Health & General Preventive Medicine-and is recommended by the ABPM as a top review source for its core specialty examination. Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices. Evolve Instructor site, with an image and table bank as well as chapter overviews as PowerPoints, is available to instructors through their Elsevier sales rep or via request at: https://evolve.elsevier.com.
Practical Psychiatric Epidemiology / Robert Stewart (Editor); Jayati Das-Munshi (Editor); Tamsin Ford (Editor); Matthew Hotopf (Editor); Martin Prince (Editor)Epidemiology has been defined as the study of the distribution and determinants of health states or events in defined populations and its application to the control of health problems. Psychiatric epidemiology has continued to develop and apply these core principles in relation to mental health and mental disorders. This long-awaited second edition of Practical Psychiatric Epidemiology covers all of the considerable new developments in psychiatric epidemiology that have occurred since the first edition was published. It includes new content on key topics such as life course epidemiology, gene/environment interactions, bioethics, patient and public involvement in research, mixed methods research, new statistical methods, case registers, policy, and implementation. Looking to the future of this rapidly evolving scientific discipline and how it will to respond to the emerging opportunities and challenges posed by 'big data', new technologies, open science and globalisation, this new edition will continue to serve as an invaluable reference for clinicians in practice and in training. It will also be of interest to researchers in mental health and people studying or teaching psychiatric epidemiology at undergraduate or postgraduate level.
Viral Sovereignty and Technology Transfer / Sam F. Halabi (Editor); Rebecca Katz (Editor)In the global infectious-disease research community, there has long been uncertainty about the conditions under which biological resources may be studied or transferred out of countries. This work examines the reasons for that uncertainty and shows how global biomedical research has been shaped by international disputes over access to biological resources. Bringing together government leaders, World Health Organization officials, and experts in virology, wildlife biology, clinical ethics, technology transfer, and international law, the book identifies the critical problems - and implications of these problems - posed by negotiating for access and sharing benefits, and proposes solutions to ensure that biomedical advances are not threatened by global politics. Written in accessible, non-technical language, this work should be read by anyone who sees global health and biomedical research as a priority for international lawmakers.